Royal Air ForceEdit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, searchThis article is about the air force of the United Kingdom. For other uses, see Royal Air Force (disambiguation)."RAF" redirects here. For other uses, see RAF (disambiguation).

Royal Air Force
Founded 1 April 1918
Country [2] United Kingdom
Size Active; 44,300 Regular[1] and 2,500 Volunteers

Reserve; 33,380 Regular Reserve[2] 1,114 aircraft

Part of British Armed Forces
Air Staff Offices MOD Main Building, Whitehall
Motto Latin: Per Ardua ad Astra

"Through Adversity to the Stars"[3]

March Royal Air Force March Past
Chief of the Air Staff Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton


Lord Trenchard

Lord Portal

RAF Badge [3]
RAF roundels [4] [5]
Fin flash [6]
Aircraft flown
Attack Tornado GR4

Typhoon FGR4 Reaper

[ Electronic


Helicopter Chinook

Merlin Puma Sea King Griffin HAR2

Interceptor Tornado F3


Reconnaissance Islander

Shadow R1

Sentinel R1 Reaper Tornado GR4A

Trainer Hawk

King Air Squirrel Tucano Tutor Vigilant Viking

Transport C-17

Hercules C3 Hercules C4 & C5 Tristar VC10

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force of the United Kingdom and the oldest independent air force in the world.[4][5] Formed on 1 April 1918,[6] the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history ever since, playing a large part in World War II and in more recent conflicts.

The RAF operates 1,114 aircraft (2010) and, as of late 2009, had a total manpower strength of 44,300 regular,[1] and 2,500 volunteers. The majority of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK with many others serving on operations (principally Afghanistan and the Middle East) or at long-established overseas bases (Ascension Island, Canada, Cyprus, Diego Garcia, Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and Germany).


[hide]*1 Mission

[edit] MissionEdit

The RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence (MoD), which are to "provide the capabilities needed: to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism; to support the Government’s foreign policy objectives particularly in promoting international peace and security."[7]

The RAF's own mission statement[8] reads as thus:

... to provide An agile, adaptable and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission.

The above statement goes hand in hand with the RAF's definition of air power, the concept that guides the RAF strategy. Air Power is defined as: "The ability to project military force in air or space by or from a platform or missile operating above the surface of the earth. Air platforms are defined as any aircraft, helicopter or unmanned air vehicle."[9] Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps also deliver air power which is integrated into the maritime, littoral and land environments.

[edit] HistoryEdit

Main article: History of the Royal Air Force[8][9]Distinctive shape of the Spitfire which played a major part in the Battle of Britain.While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.[4] It was founded on 1 April 1918, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were relatively quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire. The Royal Naval Air Service, or Fleet Air Arm as it became known, was later returned to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939.

The RAF developed its doctrine of Strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became the basic philosophy in the Second World War.[10]

[edit] Second World WarEdit

See also: Air warfare of World War IIThe RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from these countries, and exiles from occupied Europe, also served with RAF squadrons.

In the Battle of Britain, in the late summer of 1940, the RAF (supplemented by 2 Fleet Air Arm Squadrons, Polish, Czechoslovakian and other multinational pilots and ground personnel) defended the skies over Britain against the German Luftwaffe, helping foil Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom, and prompting Prime Minister Winston Churchill to say in the House of Commons on 20 August, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".[11] [10][11]The Avro Vulcan was a strategic bomber used during the Cold War to carry conventional and nuclear bombs.The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began almost immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became increasingly devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available. The RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, and developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron,[12] or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho.

[edit] Cold WarEdit

During the Cold War years the main role of the RAF was the defence of the continent of Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, including holding the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent for a number of years. After the Cold War, the RAF was involved in several large scale operations, including the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, operations in Afghanistan, the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent war.

The RAF celebrated its 90th birthday with a flypast of the Red Arrows and four Typhoons over many RAF Stations and Central London on 1 April 2008.[13]

[edit] Overseas deploymentsEdit

Country Dates Deployment Details
Kenya 2008s– Kenya Air Force Laikipia Air Base Semi permanent detachment involving helicopters giving support to the British Army
Gibraltar 1940s– RAF Gibraltar No permanently stationed aircraft. RAF aircraft, e.g. Hercules transports, make regular visits.
Canada 1940s– RAF Unit Goose Bay, Canada RAF aircraft train in low-level tactical flying at CFB Goose Bay, a NATO air force base of the Canadian Air Force.
Cyprus/Malta 1940– RAF Akrotiri

RAF Nicosia RAF Luqa

Operation Musketeer also known as the Suez crisis involved RAF aircraft based on Malta and Cyprus. Although no RAF bases remain on Malta, RAF aircraft continue to be stationed at RAF Akrotiri on Cyprus.
Norway 1960s– Bardufoss Air Station RAF fighter and/or helicopter squadrons undergo winter-training here most years.
Ascension Island 1982– RAF Ascension Island Used as an air bridge between the UK and the Falkland Islands. United States Air Force personnel also stationed at this base.
Falkland Islands 1982– RAF Stanley

RAF Mount Pleasant

After initial use of the Airport at Stanley, the airbase/airport at Mount Pleasant was built to allow a fighter and transport facility on the islands, and to strengthen the defence capacity of BFFI (British Forces Falkland Islands).BFFI now replaced by BFSAI (British Forces South Atlantic Islands).
Bosnia 1995– Various helicopters RAF enforced no-fly zones over the Balkans in the late 1990s and participated in the NATO interventions in Bosnia and Kosovo. RAF helicopters until recently remained to provide support to the United Nations.
Afghanistan 2001– Operation Veritas

Operation Herrick

Chinooks provided airlift support to coalition forces. Additionally Merlin helicopters began tasking in late 2009 following the end of Operation Telic (Iraq). Since late 2004 six BAe Harriers provided reconnaissance and close air support to the ISAF. The Harriers were replaced by an equivalent force of Tornado GR4 in mid 2009. In August 2010, the Tornado force was uplifted to 10 aircraft. Other support units are deployed to Muscat International Airport in Oman, and air bases in the UAE and the Kingdom of Bahrain.[14]
United States 2009– Creech AFB, Nevada Operation of MQ-9 Reaper UAVs by No. 39 Squadron RAF.[15]

[edit] StructureEdit

The professional head of the RAF is the Chief of the Air Staff (CAS), Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton. The CAS heads the Air Force Board, which is a committee of the Defence Council. The Air Force Board is the management board of the RAF and consists of the Commander-in-Chief of Air Command (Air Chief Marshal Simon Bryant), together with several other high ranking officers. The CAS also has a deputy known as the Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (ACAS); this post is held by Air Vice-Marshal B M North.[16]

[edit] CommandsEdit

Main article: List of Royal Air Force commandsAuthority is delegated from the Air Force Board to the RAF's commands. While there were once individual commands responsible for bombers, fighters, training, etc., only one command now exists:

[edit] GroupsEdit

Main article: List of Royal Air Force groupsGroups are the subdivisions of operational commands; these are responsible for certain types of operation or for operations in limited geographical areas. As from 1 April 2007, three groups exist:

In addition, No. 83 Group RAF, under the command of the Permanent Joint Headquarters, is active in the Middle East, supporting operations over Iraq and Afghanistan.

[edit] StationsEdit

[13][14]Phased Array Ballistic Missile Early Warning System at RAF Fylingdales.Main article: Royal Air Force stationAn RAF station is ordinarily subordinate to a group and it is administratively sub-divided into wings. Since the mid to late 1930s RAF stations have controlled a number of flying squadrons or other units at one location by means of a station headquarters.

[edit] WingsEdit

Main article: List of Royal Air Force wingsA wing is either an operational sub-division of a group or an administrative sub-division of an RAF station.

Independent Wings are a grouping of two or more squadrons, either flying squadrons or ground support squadrons. In former times, numbered flying wings have existed, but more recently they have been created only when required. For example during Operation Telic, Tornado GR4 wings were formed to operate from Ali Al Salem and Al Udeid air bases and the Tornado F3 equipped Leuchars Fighter Wing at Prince Sultan Air Base; each of these were made up of aircraft and crews from several squadrons.

On 31 March 2006, the RAF formed nine Expeditionary Air Wings (EAWs) in order to support operations. They have been established at the nine main operating bases; RAF Coningsby, RAF Cottesmore, RAF Kinloss, RAF Leeming, RAF Leuchars, RAF Lossiemouth, RAF Lyneham, RAF Marham and RAF Waddington numbered Nos 121, 122, 325, 135, 125, 140, 38, 138 and 34 EAWs respectively. These units are commanded by a Group Captain who is also the parent unit's Station Commander. The EAW comprises the non-formed unit elements of the station that are required to support a deployed operating base, i.e. the command and control, logistics and administration functions amongst others. They are designed to be flexible and quickly adaptable for differing operations. They are independent of flying squadrons, Air Combat Support Units (ACSU) and Air Combat Service Support Units (ACSSU) who are attached to the EAW depending on the task it has been assigned.[17]

A wing is also an administrative sub-division of an RAF station. Historically, for a flying station these were normally Operations Wing, Engineering Wing and Administration Wing and each wing was commanded by an officer of wing commander rank. Early in the 21st century, the model changed, with Engineering Wing typically being split into Forward Support Wing and Depth Support Wing, while Administration Wing was redesignated Base Support Wing.

[edit] SquadronsEdit

Main article: List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadronsA flying squadron is an aircraft unit which carries out the primary tasks of the RAF. RAF squadrons are somewhat analogous to the regiments of the British Army in that they have histories and traditions going back to their formation, regardless of where they are based, which aircraft they are operating, etc. They can be awarded standards and battle honours for meritorious service. Whilst every squadron is different, most flying squadrons are commanded by a wing commander and, for a fast-jet squadron, have an establishment of around 100 personnel and 12 aircraft, but 16 aircraft for Tornado F3 Squadrons.(note that this type is now flown only by 111 Squadron).

The term squadron can be used to refer to a sub-unit of an administrative wing or small RAF station, e.g. Air Traffic Control Squadron, Personnel Management Squadron etc. There are also Ground Support Squadrons, e.g. No 2 (Mechanical Transport) Squadron which is located at RAF Wittering. Administrative squadrons are normally commanded by a squadron leader.

[edit] FlightsEdit

See also: List of Royal Air Force aircraft independent flightsA flight is a sub-division of a squadron. Flying squadrons are often divided into two flights, e.g. "A" and "B", each under the command of a squadron leader. Administrative squadrons on a station are also divided into flights and these flights are commanded by a junior officer, often a flight lieutenant.

Because of their small size, there are several flying units formed as flights rather than squadrons. For example No. 1435 Flight is based at RAF Mount Pleasant in the Falkland Islands, maintaining air defence cover with four Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft.

[edit] PersonnelEdit

In 2009 the RAF employed 44,300 active duty personnel and 2,500 RAF Volunteer Reserves. In addition there were 33,380 regular reserves. Under the SDSR the RAF will reduce to 33,000 active duty personnel by 2015 and then to 31,500 by 2020. At its height (1944) during the Second World War, more than 1,100,000 personnel were serving. The longest-lived founding member of the RAF was Henry Allingham, who died on 18 July 2009 aged 113.[18] See also: List of Royal Air Force members and List of comparative military ranks===[edit] Officers=== Main article: RAF officer ranksOfficers hold a commission from the Sovereign, which provides the legal authority for them to issue orders to subordinates. The commission of a regular officer is granted after successfully completing the 30-week-long Initial Officer Training course at the RAF College, Cranwell, Lincolnshire. Other officers also train at RAF Cranwell, but on different courses, such as those for professionally qualified officers.

The titles and insignia of RAF officers were chiefly derived from those used by the Royal Navy, specifically the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) during World War I. For example, the rank of Squadron Leader derived its name from the RNAS rank of Squadron Commander. RAF officers fall into three categories: air officers, senior officers and junior officers.

[edit] Other ranksEdit

Main article: RAF other ranksOther ranks attend the Recruit Training Squadron at RAF Halton for basic training, with the exception of the RAF Regiment, which trains its recruits at RAF Honington.

The titles and insignia of other ranks in the RAF was based on that of the Army, with some alterations in terminology. Over the years, this structure has seen significant changes, for example there was once a separate system for those in technical trades and the ranks of Chief Technician and Junior Technician continue to be held only by personnel in technical trades. RAF other ranks fall into four categories: Warrant Officers, Senior Non-Commissioned Officers, Junior Non-Commissioned Officers and Airmen.

The most senior other ranks of the RAF is known as the Chief of the Air Staff's Warrant Officer, a position held by Warrant Officer Gary Wilcox.[19]

[edit] Branches and tradesEdit

[15][16]A Tornado WSO of No. 12 Squadron*RAF Pilots and Weapon Systems Officers (WSO) (formerly known as Navigators) are commissioned officers on the General Duties List.

  • Non-commissioned (NCO) Aircrew known as Weapons System Operators (WSOp), fulfil the specialist roles of air engineer (E), air electronics operator (AEOp), air loadmaster (ALM) and air signaller (S). Though they are now known collectively as weapon systems operators, individual trade specialisations remain.

The majority of the members of the RAF serve in support roles on the ground.

  • Engineering Officers and technicians are employed to maintain and repair the equipment used by the RAF. This includes routine preparation for flight and maintenance on aircraft, arming aircraft with weapons, as well as deeper level repair work on aircraft systems, IT systems, ground based radar, vehicles, ground support equipment, etc.
  • RAF Flight Operations Officers are involved with the planning and co-ordination of all Flying Operations. Flight Operations Officers can be found in every RAF Flying Station and Squadron.
  • RAF Regiment officers and gunners in the regiment defend RAF airfields from attack. They have infantry and light armoured units to protect against ground attack.
  • Aerospace Battle Managers (formally Fighter Controllers (FC)) and Air Traffic Controllers (ATC), control RAF and NATO aircraft from the ground. The FC control the interception of enemy aircraft while the ATC provide air traffic services at RAF stations and to the majority of en-route military aircraft in UK airspace.
  • RAF Intelligence Officers and Intelligence Analysts support all operational activities by providing timely and accurate indicators and warnings. They conduct detailed all source military intelligence fusion and analysis by utilising classified and open source information including imagery, human and communications (signals) intelligence. Intelligence is used to inform commanders of the assessed capabilities and intentions of the enemy for strategic / operational planning and targeting. They also tailor the information to brief aircrews for mission planning and other tactical units (such as RAF Regiment) for Force Protection.
  • RAF Medical Branch provides healthcare at home and on deployed operations, including aeromedical evacuation services. Medical officers are the doctors of the RAF and have specialist expertise in aviation medicine to support aircrew and their protective equipment. Medical officers can go on aeromedical evacuations, providing vital assistance on search-and-rescue missions or emergency relief flights worldwide. RAF Medical Officers are either based in primary care on operations or on RAF stations in the UK or in one of six Ministry of Defence Hospital Units (MDHU's) around the UK as specialist practitioners.
  • Administrative Officers and associated Pers Admin trades are involved with human resources management, training management, physical education, catering, infrastructure management, accounts, dress and discipline, personnel and recruitment.
  • RAF Chaplains Branch provides spiritual and moral support for RAF personnel and their families.
  • RAF Legal Branch provides legal advice on discipline / criminal law and operations law.
  • RAF Police are the military police of the RAF.

[edit] ReservesEdit

[edit] Specialist training and educationEdit

The Royal Air Force operates several units and centres for the provision of non-generic training and education. These include the Royal Air Force Leadership Centre and the Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies, both based at RAF Cranwell, and the Air Warfare Centre, based at RAF Waddington and RAF Cranwell. NCO training and developmental courses occur at RAF Halton and officer courses occur at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Shrivenham.

[edit] AircraftEdit

Further information: List of aircraft of the RAF and List of active United Kingdom military aircraftBritish military aircraft designations generally comprise a type name followed by a mark number which includes an alphabetical rôle prefix. For example, the Tornado F3 is designated as a fighter by the 'F', and is the third variant of the type to be produced.

[edit] Strike, attack and offensive support aircraftEdit

The mainstay of the offensive support fleet is the Tornado GR4. This supersonic aircraft can carry a wide range of weaponry, including Storm Shadow cruise missiles, laser-guided bombs and the ALARM anti-radar missile. Since June 2008, the Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 has also been capable of being deployed operationally in the air-to-ground role.[20]

The Tornado was previously supplemented by the Harrier GR7/GR7A in the strike and close air support roles, and to counter enemy air defences. Some Harrier GR7/7A aircraft were upgraded to GR9/GR9A standard with newer avionics and more powerful Rolls-Royce Pegasus engines. The Harrier GR9 was formally accepted into RAF service in late September 2006. The Harrier fleet's farewell flights occurred on 15 December 2010 with fly pasts over numerous military bases and is now retired.[21]

Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4
Tornado GR4

[edit] Air defence and airborne early warning aircraftEdit

The Panavia Tornado F3 and Eurofighter Typhoon F2/FGR4 are the RAF's air defence fighter aircraft, based at RAF Leuchars and RAF Coningsby. Their task is to defend the UK’s airspace. In October 2007 it was announced that RAF Boscombe Down, RNAS Culdrose and RAF Marham would also be used as Quick Reaction Alert bases from early 2008, offering around-the-clock fighter coverage for the South and South West of UK airspace when a direct threat has been identified.[22]

The Tornado, in service in the air defence role since the late 1980s, is being replaced by the Typhoon. As of December 2010, the RAF's has three operational Typhoon units, 3 Squadron and 11 Squadron based at Coningsby, and 6 Squadron at Leuchars. The last Tornado F3 squadron, 111 Squadron at RAF Leuchars is due to disband in March 2011.[23]

The Sentry AEW1, based at RAF Waddington, provides airborne early warning to detect incoming enemy aircraft and to co-ordinate the aerial battlefield. Both the Sentry and the Tornado F3 have been involved in recent operations including over Iraq and the Balkans.

Eurofighter Typhoon F2
Tornado F3
Sentry AEW1

[edit] Reconnaissance aircraftEdit

The Tornado GR4A is fitted with cameras and sensors in the visual, infra-red and radar ranges of the spectrum.

The Nimrod R1 provides electronic and signals intelligence.

The new Sentinel R1 (also known as ASTOR – Airborne STand-Off Radar) provides a ground radar-surveillance platform based on the Bombardier Global Express long range business jet. These were supplemented in 2009 by four Beechcraft Shadow R1 aircraft equipped for the ISTAR role over Afghanistan.[24]

A pair of MQ-9 Reaper Unmanned aerial vehicles have been purchased to support operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. They are operated by No. 39 Squadron RAF. More MQ-9s are in the process of being purchased.[25][26]

Nimrod R1
Sentinel R1
MQ-9 Reaper

[edit] Support helicoptersEdit

An important part of the work of the RAF is to support the British Army by ferrying troops and equipment at the battlefield. However, RAF helicopters are also used in a variety of other roles, including support of RAF ground units and heavy-lift support for the Royal Marines. The support helicopters are organised into the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command (JHC), along with helicopters of the British Army and Royal Navy. The only helicopters not coordinated by the JHC are the search and rescue helicopters of the RAF and RN, and those RN helicopters that are normally based onboard a ship such as a destroyer or frigate.

The large twin-rotor Chinook HC2/HC2A, based at RAF Odiham provides heavy-lift support and is supported by the Merlin HC3 and the smaller Puma HC1 medium-lift helicopters, based at RAF Benson and RAF Aldergrove.

It was announced in March 2007 that the RAF was to take delivery of six additional Merlins. The aircraft were originally ordered by Denmark and six new replacement aircraft were built for Denmark. It was also announced that eight Chinook HC3s that were in storage are being modified for the battlefield support role and available for operation from 2010.

Merlin HC3
Chinook HC2
Puma HC1

[edit] Maritime patrolEdit

[28][29]Nimrod MRA4Until it was withdrawn on 31 March 2010, the Nimrod MR2's primary role was that of Anti-Submarine Warfare and Anti-Surface Unit Warfare. It was additionally used in a Search and Rescue role, where its long range and communications facilities allowed it to co-ordinate rescues by acting as a link between rescue helicopters, ships and shore bases. It could also drop pods containing life rafts and survival supplies to people in the sea. Following its demise, the search and rescue role was adopted by the C-130 Hercules force, and the anti-submarine role by the Royal Navy.[citation needed] The Nimrod MR2 was to be replaced eventually by nine Nimrod MRA4 aircraft from late 2011. However the MRA4 was cancelled in the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review.[27]

[edit] Transport and air-to-air refuelling aircraftEdit

Having replaced the former Queen's Flight in 1995, 32 (The Royal) Squadron uses the BAe 125 CC3, Agusta A109 and BAe 146 CC2 in the VIP transport role, based at RAF Northolt, just west of London.

More routine, strategic airlift transport tasks are carried out by the TriStars and VC10s based at RAF Brize Norton, for passengers and cargo, and for air-to-air refuelling of other aircraft.

Shorter range, tactical-airlift transport is provided by the Hercules, the fleet including both older C-130K (Hercules C1/C3) and newer C-130J (Hercules C4/C5) variants, based at RAF Lyneham in Wiltshire. All C-130's will be will be withdrawn by 2022.

The RAF leased four C-17 Globemaster IIIs from Boeing to provide a heavy, strategic airlift capability. These were purchased, as well a fifth C-17, which was delivered on 7 April 2008 as well as a sixth aircraft delivered on 8 June 2008. The new aircraft entered frontline use within days rather than weeks. The MoD said "there is a stated departmental requirement for eight" C-17s and a seventh has been ordered for delivery in December 2010.[28]

C-17 Globemaster III
Hercules C5 (C-130J)
TriStar K1
VC10 C1K
AgustaWestland AW109E

[edit] Search and rescue aircraftEdit

Main article: RAF Search and Rescue Force[35][36]Sea King HAR3AThree squadrons of helicopters exist with the primary role of military search and rescue; the rescuing of aircrew who have ejected or crash-landed their aircraft. These are 22 Squadron and 202 Squadron with the Sea King HAR.3/HAR3A in the UK and 84 Squadron with the Griffin HAR2 in Cyprus.

Although established with a primary role of military search and rescue, most of their operational missions are spent in their secondary role of conducting civil search and rescue; that is, the rescue of civilians from the sea, on mountainsides and other locations.

Both rescue roles are shared with the Sea King helicopters of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, while the civil search and rescue role is also shared with the helicopters of HM Coastguard.

The Operational Conversion Unit is 203 Squadron RAF based at RAF Valley equipped with the Sea King HAR3.

The related Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service comprises four teams of trained mountaineers stationed in the mainland United Kingdom, first established in 1943.

[edit] Training aircraftEdit

[37][38]BAE HawkElementary flying training is conducted on the Tutor T1. The Tutor is also used, along with the Viking T1 and Vigilant T1 gliders, to provide air experience training for air cadets and elementary flying training for trainee RAF pilots.

Basic pilot training for fixed-wing and helicopter pilots is provided on the Tucano T1 and Squirrel HT1, while weapon systems officer and weapon systems operator training is conducted in the Dominie T1.

Advanced flying training for fast-jet, helicopter and multi-engine pilots is provided using the Hawk T1, Griffin HT1 and B200 King Air respectively. At the more advanced stage in training, variants of front-line aircraft have been adapted for operational conversion of trained pilots; these include the Harrier T10 and Typhoon T1.

[edit] Future aircraftEdit

See also: Future of the Royal Air Force[39][40]F-35 Lightning II[41][42]Airbus A400MThe RAF is planning for the introduction of new aircraft. As of October 2010, these include:

[edit] Symbols, flags, emblems and uniformEdit

Further information: Royal Air Force roundels and Royal Air Force uniform[43][44]Royal Air Force Ensign[45][46]Queen's ColourFollowing the tradition of the other British fighting services, the RAF has adopted symbols to represent it, act as a rallying point for its members and encourage esprit de corps.

The RAF Ensign is flown from the flagstaff on every RAF station during daylight hours. The design was approved by King George V in 1921, after much opposition from the Admiralty, who have the right to approve or veto any flag flown ashore or on board ship.

British aircraft in the early stages of the First World War carried the Union Flag as an identifying feature, however this was easy to confuse with Germany's Iron Cross motif. Therefore in October 1914 the French system of three concentric rings was adopted, with the colours reversed to a red disc surrounded by a white ring and an outer blue ring. The relative sizes of the rings have changed over the years and during World War II an outer yellow ring was added. Aircraft serving in the Far East during World War II had the red disc removed to prevent confusion with Japanese aircraft. Since the 1970s, camouflaged aircraft carry low-visibility roundels, either red and blue on dark camouflage, or washed-out pink and light blue on light colours. Most uncamouflaged training and transport aircraft retain the traditional red-white-blue roundel.

The Latin motto of the RAF, "Per Ardua ad Astra", is usually translated as "Through Adversity to the Stars",[31][32] but the RAF's official translation is "Through Struggle to the Stars".[3] The choice of motto is attributed to a junior officer named J S Yule, in response to a request from a commander of the RFC, Colonel Sykes, for suggestions. The RAF inherited the motto from the RFC.

The Badge of the Royal Air Force was first used in August 1918. In heraldic terms it is: "In front of a circle inscribed with the motto Per Ardua Ad Astra and ensigned by the Imperial Crown an eagle volant and affronte Head lowered and to the sinister."[32] Although there have been debates among airmen over the years whether the bird was originally meant to be an albatross or an eagle, the consensus is that it was always an eagle.[33]

In 2006 the RAF adopted a logotype featuring a roundel and the Service's unabbreviated name (shown at the top of this article). The logotype is used on all correspondence and publicity material and aims to provide the Service with a single, universally-recognizable brand identity.

[edit] See alsoEdit

[47] Royal Air Force portal

[edit] ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Defence Analytical Services and Advice: UK Armed Forces Monthly Manpower Statistics". Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  2. ^ "Defence Analytical Services and Advice: UK Reserves and Cadets Strengths". Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  3. ^ a b "RAF – Frequently Asked Questions". 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  4. ^ a b Royal Air Force History History of the RAF
  5. ^ [1] HM Armed Forces: The RAF
  6. ^ "RAF History Timeline 1917 to 1918". Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom). Retrieved 2010-01-31.
  7. ^ Defence Analytical Services Agency The MOD Mission
  8. ^ "RAF website". 2009-11-03. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  9. ^ "RAF website". 2010-02-15. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  10. ^ Tami Davis Biddle, "British and American Approaches to Strategic Bombing: Their Origins and Implementation in the World War II Combined Bomber Offensive," Journal of Strategic Studies, March 1995, Vol. 18 Issue 1, pp 91-144; Tami Davis Biddle, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914-1945 (2002)
  11. ^ The Churchill Centre – Speeches & Quotes
  12. ^ Paul Brickhill, The Dambusters
  13. ^ BBC, Your Pictures: RAF Flypast
  14. ^ Tornados Bound for Kandahar, Air Forces Monthly, August 2008 issue, p. 8.
  15. ^ "Nevada". RAF. 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  16. ^ "Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (ACAS)". Royal Air Force web site. Royal Air Force. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
  17. ^ 31 March 2006. Command Structure.
  18. ^ "Fly-past for Britain's oldest man". BBC News.
  19. ^ "Chief of the Air Staff's Warrant Officer". RAF. 2010.
  20. ^ AirForcesMonthly.August 2008.p9
  21. ^ "Last trip for one of Britain's iconic aircraft". BBC News. 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
  22. ^ Air base in front line fully-armedSalisbury Journal, Monday 29 October 2007
  23. ^ McManamon, Craig (2010-09-07). "Typhoons mark a new era at RAF Leuchars". The Courier. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
  24. ^ "UK converts King Air 350s into ISTAR platforms". 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  25. ^ Air Forces Monthly, December 2007 issue, p.6.
  26. ^ "UK confirms deal to double Reaper UAV fleet-09/12/". 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
  27. ^ a b "Lots of Losers in U.K. Defense Review". DefenseNews. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  28. ^ John Pike. "Royal Air Force to Acquire 7th Boeing C-17 Globemaster III". Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  29. ^ "Royal Air Force – A400M". 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  30. ^ Rivet Joint joins Future Force 2020
  31. ^ Cranwell Heraldry Part One: The Royal Air Force BadgeThe Heraldry Society, September 2005
  32. ^ a b Air Ministry Orders A.666/49, 15 September 1949
  33. ^ by W/C F.H. Hitchins. "It’s an albatross, it’s an eagle … it’s an eagle". Retrieved 2010-10-22.

[edit] External linksEdit

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